The Black and White Rag

By ALBERT EVANS, Artistic Associate

On a bright spring morning, in the city of New Rochelle, New York, E. L. Doctorow sat at his desk in a darkened room, staring at the wall. A fresh sheet of paper stood in his typewriter, but an idea for a new novel eluded him.

Doctorow was determined to keep to his daily writing schedule, so he lit his pipe and began to describe what he saw—the wall. Having soon exhausted that subject, he moved on to the room and the rest of the house: a spacious residence built in the early 1900s. He began to imagine the family that might have lived there during that time—dominant white Protestants, served by second-generation Irish Catholics who cleaned their houses, tended their lawns and lived out of sight “somewhere downtown.”

His novelist’s eye zoomed out to take in nearby New York City, ruled by titans of business, administered by tough politicians and peopled by the full range of humanity, from the upper classes living in marble mansions, to the desperately poor tenement dwellers—the Italians, Poles and Jews who had fled poverty and hunger in their homelands, thousands of them arriving every month on what the rich sneeringly called “rag ships.”

At the bottom of the social ladder were the Blacks, many of them former slaves, who migrated north to escape the new bondage of the Jim Crow laws only to find themselves again unwelcome and unemployable.

But despite the sharp divisions between rich and poor, there was an exciting spirit of change in the city. It was an age of invention and speed—the country was connected by thousands of miles of railroad tracks and telegraph cables. The miraculous new telephone made cross-country vocal communication possible. Men were even building flying machines and conquering the air! The phonograph turned a nation of amateur music makers into a vast audience of listeners. A new kind of music caught the spirit of the age—75 years later, Doctorow would use it as the title of his book: Ragtime.


Ragtime began as a way of playing any kind of music by “ragging” the melody, a rhythmic trick which almost certainly originated with the African American plantation culture of the mid-1800s. Over a steady beat—foot stomping or hand clapping—a banjo player would alter a melody so that accents that would normally fall on strong beats might instead playfully land on weak beats, or even between the beats. This was not new — it was called “syncopation” and had been used as an ear-catching effect in folk and classical music for years. But the plantation players would rag the entire melody, beginning to end. These first raggers were amateurs. Nothing was written down, so the origins of ragtime are hard to trace.

Around 1890, ragtime traveled north and was taken up by pianists who entertained in big-city saloons and brothels. Some of these “professors” could actually read and write music. All of them learned from each other and the idea of rags as composed pieces with identifiable authors emerged.

Scott Joplin was one of those authors. Born in Texas in 1867 and raised in Missouri, he was an ambitious and serious-minded kid, one of the first generation of African Americans born after the end of slavery. His parents were both musical, and young Joplin was given free piano lessons by a sympathetic German music professor who introduced him to the classics. In his late twenties, Joplin played in the places where he could find work—in the bars and bordellos. He was enraptured by ragtime, and soon made it his mission to elevate rags to the level of Chopin Nocturnes or Bach Preludes. His first publication, “Original Rags,” brought him notice; his second, “Maple Leaf Rag” (published in 1899) swept the world—the first instrumental piece to sell over a million copies of sheet music. For the next two decades, Joplin’s rags were the gold standard, admired and played all over the world.

Joplin-style “classic ragtime” is a piano genre, a fusion of Black and White styles that seems to musically advocate for the harmony of the races. The left hand is the “White” hand. It lays down the steady “oom-pah” rhythm and four-square chords of the parade march. (John Philip Sousa, America’s March King, was a great Joplin admirer and advocate.) Against that conventional foundation, the right hand—the “Black” hand—plays ragged melodies in the new syncopated style invented by the plantation pickers and fiddlers. Together, the two hands work together like a happy machine, creating an almost hypnotic mood and sustaining it for three or four minutes, the length of a typical rag. Despite the seeming freedom of the right-hand, ragtime is not jazz—its themes are carefully composed and players are not expected to take liberties, except for an occasional virtuosic flourish. Joplin even tried to limit the speed at which his rags were played. Often printed on his music was this:

“Note. Do not play this piece fast. It is never right to play Ragtime fast.” – Composer

For the first few years of the Ragtime Era, the sheet music titles and cover art made it clear that rags were being offered as examples of “quaint” Black music, often with minstrel show references. But as the music moved out of the saloons and into the genteel parlors of White society, that marketing angle was dropped. Titles became politely vague and artwork depicted well-dressed white couples riding horses, rowing canoes, or attending palm court dances. Neither approach had much to do with the music. But the image of Joplin himself was never obscured or downplayed. His dark, dignified face looks out proudly from his compositions. “Maple Leaf Rag” gave him a secure income that allowed him to pursue the writing of operas, though none ever earned a dime.

As ragtime grew from a novelty to a craze, popular songwriters began naming their marches and two-steps “rags,” even if they had barely a lick of syncopation in them, like Irving Berlin’s breakthrough hit “Alexander’s Ragtime Band.” The era of classic ragtime came to an end in 1919, two years after Joplin’s death. The Ragtime Era was followed by the Jazz Age, which borrowed the syncopations of ragtime, added the freedom of improvisation and revoked the speed limit. Ragtime enjoyed a nostalgic mid-century revival, along with Dixieland jazz, barbershop quartets and other “old-timey” styles. Ragtime was typically caricatured as raucous honkytonk music. Male performers wore derbies and striped shirts with sleeve garters; females wore anachronistic flapper dresses and feather boas. The pianos were sometimes tricked out to sound metallic and even out-of-tune.

In 1970, a young musicologist named Joshua Rifkin recorded an album of Joplin rags performed in respectful, authentic style. It was an ear-opening success, and suddenly classic ragtime was back in vogue. The music got another boost when Marvin Hamlisch adapted several of Joplin’s pieces (most prominently “The Entertainer”) for the soundtrack of The Sting. Ragtime, E. L. Doctorow’s best-selling novel, appeared in 1975, followed by a 1981 movie and, in 1996 became the stirring musical you will see today.

Click here for tickets to see Ragtime at The 5th Avenue Theatre.


A Story About Us: An Interview with Peter Rothstein

By Kwapi Vengesayi, Community Engagement Specialist

On December 8, 1996, Ragtime, a musical based on the 1975 novel by E.L. Doctorow, celebrated its world premiere at the Toronto Centre for the Arts. Fourteen months later, on January 18, 1998, it made its Broadway debut, which marked the beginning of what would be a two-year run: 27 previews, 834 performances, 13 Tony Award® nominations and four wins, including Best Book of a Musical and Best Score.“The original production was glorious,” says Peter

“The original production was glorious,” says Peter Rothstein, director of The 5th Avenue’s production of Ragtime. “It had a huge and incredible cast, it was an epic production; it was theatrically thrilling.” Peter Rothstein is the Founding Artistic Director of Theater Latté Da based in Minneapolis. In fall of 2016, Rothstein directed a new, reimagined

Peter Rothstein is the Founding Artistic Director of Theater Latté Da based in Minneapolis. In fall of 2016, Rothstein directed a new, reimagined
version of Ragtime. With a scaled down cast of just 15 actors—11 adults and four children—Theater Latté Da’s production presented a new take on the original musical. As Rothstein continues to develop the show, this number has also adjusted. The 5th’s
production features 13 adults and four children.“I intentionally said there would be no chorus.

“I intentionally said there would be no chorus. The production would engage just the principal characters.” For example, in the opening number when the immigrants are introduced, the entire cast is onstage singing, but the event is focused in such a way that the audience observes only the Jewish immigrant Tateh and his child rather than a full chorus of immigrants. As a result, the central characters are given more attention, more focus.These principals then serve as the ensemble,

These principals then serve as the ensemble, chorus and narrators of each other’s stories. When Coalhouse is purchasing a Model T, you’ll see the rest of the cast playing the factory workers. This allows the audience to spend more time with each actor than they would in a more traditional large-scale production. It also underlines a central metaphor in the piece. “As a community, as a nation, we are personally responsible for each other’s story. I believe that,” Rothstein says.“Ragtime is about our core values as a nation.” At a

“Ragtime is about our core values as a nation.” At a time in which the nation’s social and political climate has been abrasive when it comes to conversations about identity, Rothstein feels that Ragtime is a production that will inspire dialogue. Anchored in the narratives of three characters—a Jewish immigrant, an African-American musician and an affluent white woman—this musical weaves these stories in a profound and beautiful way as it explores the different relationships the characters have within the power structures of the nation.

Click here to get tickets for Ragtime at The 5th Avenue Theatre.


Ragtime Historical Figures & Their American Story

By Kwapi Vengesayi, Community Engagement Specialist

Based on the 1975 novel by E.L Doctorow, Ragtime is a musical that introduces the stories of fictional characters and intertwines them with the lives of real-life historical figures. Get to know some of these characters from history below.

HenryFord_Logo_wnameHenry Ford
July 30, 1863 – April 7, 1947

Henry Ford was an industrialist, inventor, and founder of the Ford Motor Company. He was the first to apply the assembly line process to automobile manufacturing, a move which revolutionized not only the industry but also transportation in general.

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Creating a Completely New Musical: The Development of Something Rotten!

Most Broadway newcomers don’t get their first show produced by Tony Award-winner Kevin McCollum, and they don’t typically land Tony-winner Casey Nicholaw as their director-choreographer. But brothers Karey and Wayne Kirkpatrick and British comedy writer John O’Farrell, the creators of the Tony Award-nominated Something Rotten!, aren’t like most Broadway first-timers.

Growing up in Louisiana, the Kirkpatrick brothers fell in love with musical theater, appearing in high school shows and going to what’s now the Baton Rouge River Center to see touring productions of Broadway hits. In 1983, Karey Kirkpatrick saw his first show on Broadway, My One and Only, starring Tommy Tune and Twiggy, at the St. James Theatre – the theater that’s now home to Something Rotten!.

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An Interview with Steve Bebout, Something Rotten!’s Associate Director

Q: Can you take me back to when you started working on the big show-stopping number “A Musical”?

A: I work with Casey [Nicholaw, director & choreographer], and he has an associate choreographer John MacInnis as well. And Glen Kelly, who is the dance arranger. The authors had written this song, and it had a verse and a chorus and a bridge. But when you need to expand upon that to make it larger, something that can have a dance break, you need to have some more music. Sometimes it’s just an extension of what’s already there, and sometimes it’s brand-spanking new.

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Shakespearean References in Something Rotten!

Something Rotten! is jam-packed with references from William Shakespeare’s plays and life. How many can you spot? Here are a few of those quotes, characters and parts of plays that will help you unlock the topsy-turvy world of the Renaissance.

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An Interview with Something Rotten!’s Karey Kirkpatrick and John O’Farrell

An interview with Something Rotten!’s Karey Kirkpatrick (Book, Music & Lyrics) and John O’Farrell (Book)

Q – Can you talk about the initial idea/concept?

K –I think it was a series of conversations that happened over a series of meetings, Christmas dinners, since Wayne [Kirkpatrick, Karey’s brother] and I don’t live in the same town.

We were big history buffs. It just started, wouldn’t it be funny if Shakespeare’s London were a lot like what Broadway was like in the ‘30s? If the writers had agents, and the Tin Pan Alley scene. The early jokes were like, the agents were William and Morris. The law firm was Rosen, Crantz & Guildenstern. So that was an early idea. At one point, it was, what would it be like to be writing in the shadow of William Shakespeare, after Romeo and Juliet just opened?

Early on, we came up with two writers who weren’t brothers, just partners, trying to beat Shakespeare at his own game, going to a soothsayer to try to find out what the next big thing in theater is. And that guy is saying, “Musicals.” So what would it be like writing the first musical that ends up being a mashup of musicals and Shakespeare plays?

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“Welcome to the Renaissance”: The World of Something Rotten!

The Renaissance

Something Rotten! transports today’s audiences from the seats of a Broadway house across the Atlantic and back through the history book pages to Renaissance England. But what is the Renaissance, and how did it change England in the 16th century? The word “renaissance” is French for “rebirth” and was a term used to describe the period roughly between the 14th and 17th centuries when society was marked by great advancements in art, science and culture. It is believed that the Renaissance began in Florence, Italy, in the 14th century after the Fall of Constantinople and the Roman Empire. During this period, artists, scholars and scientists moved to Italy to continue their work. Patrons, wealthy families of renown in Italy, like the Medicis, provided creative minds with great sums of money to create art and innovate to further advance the family’s popularity and power. The period saw advancements in art, literature, music, politics, religion, science, philosophy and a revived interest in the humanism of the Greeks and Romans. Some of the most notable inventions of the time were the telescope, microscope, printing press, advanced uses of gunpowder and artillery, and a flushing toilet. The most prominent artists and figures of the time include Leonardo Da Vinci, Michelangelo, Raphael, Niccolo Machiavelli, Thomas More, Galileo, Martin Luther and several more. In the next few hundred years, the Renaissance moved outward from Italy to its neighboring countries, including England.

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Getting the Joke: The Humor of Something Rotten!

The laugh lines in the Broadway hit Something Rotten! flow from different sources.

Some come at the expense of William Shakespeare, the rock star of his day, here played as a world-weary writer who finds being famous so much more enjoyable than actually coming up with new ideas.

Some are pointed at musical theater itself, a veritable feast for fans and geeks who adore Rent, Cats, A Chorus Line, Chicago, Les Misérables, Annie and dozens of other iconic musicals from the Broadway cannon.

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